Saturday, June 27, 2020
Risks and value management are very much interrelated tasks and should be undertaken in parallel. Value management is concerned with alternative solutions based on a set of constraints that have been analysed in order to approve the best available option in terms of specification, cost, etc. Risk management looks at generated alternatives to remove any elements of surprise. Poor risk management is therefore a main cause of project collapse. An adequate understanding of both value and risk management is a major contributor in improving project performance. In practice, a value management exercise is performed first, to determine what represents value to the project or to the business as a result of delivering the project. Once a preferred option is identified, the risks that are likely to occur if that option was implemented are also identified. An integrated project team (value management and risk management) repeats the exercise of identifying value and the associated risks until they reach an optimum balance between value and risk. 4.2 Value and value management: Value, in a broad sense, is concerned with achieving benefit to the client. That is, the proposed project is worth it and benefits could be measured in business terms but not essentially in financial terms, for example, to create better working environments or to improve patients experience during treatment. Value implies ensuring the right decisions are taken to obtain an optimum balance of benefits with respect to cost and risk. Value management then provides a systemised approach for assessing and developing a project to improve the chances of achieving project requirements at an optimum value for money. Value management is an ongoing process in which all relevant components in a project are critically appraised to verify whether more valuable alternatives are available. The emphasis of value management is on value for money and function not on reducing cost. Benefits achieved through VM include an improved understanding of business needs and the flexibility to meet further future needs as well as the attainment of optimal value for money while meeting user requirement. VM also prevents unnecessary expenses by reducing waste, enhancing team work and having joint ownership of solutions. 4.3 Value engineering: Value engineering follows a work plan involving a series of stages that need to be executed in order so that the most promising proposals; or options can be determined. These steps are: Orienting/identifying: This will involve identifying the business problem, customer priorities and needs. Collecting information: This step entails collecting information or data regarding costs, values, risks and other project constraints. Speculating/generating: This implies generating ideas to meet project needs and priorities which have been previously identified. This process is best carried out through a workshop with involving stakeholders and team members. The purpose is to generate ideas in a Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"criticism-free atmosphere that encourages free thinking and creativity. Evaluation ideas: This step identifies the most favourable option in the last step. Development ideas: The most favourable and promising options are appraised and developed, which may be carried out by sub-groups of the above workshop. Recommending/deciding/implementing: The results of the last step are presented to the group for a decision to be made on which proposal to follow. An action plan is then prepared to pursue the proposal. Giving feedback: The success of the selected and implemented option is evaluated for lessons to be learned and to inform future projects. Once a design has been developed to a reasonable cost, the team should carry out a value engineering study. The purpose of this study is to optimize the cost, quality of the design and delivery time: 4.3.1 Preparation/information phase: Stage 1: This initial phase of VE analysis comprises a pre-study session 18.104.22.168 Pre-Study: During pre-study, the facilitator collects data related to the background of the project, its requirements and cost. The facilitator will then arrange and summarize the data to be reviewed by the VE Team. The project manager will usually provide data which may require validation or enhancement once the VE team has defined the project areas that present maximum savings. 22.214.171.124 Study session: The facilitator arranges for the project and plan managers to present to the VE team a briefing the objective of which is to complement the design documents and respond to queries by the VE team. The project and plan administrators may be called upon to address questions as they come up. After the briefing, the VE group separates basic and secondary design functions and founding cost-to worth ratios relating to such functions. The objective is identifying poor value functions which give high cost-to-worth ratio. During the briefing the study leader asks three questions: What is the problem or opportunity the study has to address? Why a triple or an opportunity is considered as such? Why is necessary to solve a problem and what consequences arise from leaving the problem unresolved? The inputs of the workshop typically comprise: A project-brief summary. The role model developed beforehand cost estimation The design report. Specifications. Two techniques are used to identify the weakness of value function: the Function Analysis System Technique (FAST) and the cost model, which is generally unaccepted as a standalone technique, but it can be integrated into the FAST diagram. Developing the FAST diagram engages the VE team with the study items and imposes rapid exploration. 4.4 When to manage risk and value: Integrating value and risk management is a continuous process right through the project lifecycle. These activities help to inform key decisions in the stages below where both risk and value management processes integrate: 4.4.1 The stage process: The stage process reduces overall project risk through assessing the project at key stages to ensure that it can move forwards successfully to the subsequent stage. Early on in the process, a decision is made concerning the balance of cost and risk with respect to value conveyed to the client regarding business benefits. At a later stage, the focus will be on controlling risk and prospects for enhancing value, having decided about the optimum course forward. 4.4.2 Risk and value management review points: Before Stage 0: Value management identifies stakeholders needs, priorities and objectives; risk analysis of high level risks and potential options. Stage 0: Strategic assessment. Before stage 1: High level risk management. Value management to evaluate options to meet users needs. Stage 1: Business justification. Before stage 2: Value management to improve output-based specifications, evaluate and refine options that satisfy project brief. Risk management to identify risks related to each alternative, management cost (avoidance, acceptance, design/reduction, share or transfer). Go over risk allowance. Stage 2: Procurement strategy. Before stage3: Value management to utilize selection and award criteria, update risk register, risk allowance and revise base estimate. Stage3: Investment decision to be taken before decision point; value engineering to optimize design quality and cost, to assess option buildability by the integrated project team; risk management to identify outstanding risks; to control risks and risk allowances; agree and apply collective risk management method. Decision point 1: Outline design. Before decision point 2: Detailed design. Value engineering to optimize design quality and cost. Project team to assess design buildability. Risk management to identify residual risks and to continue managing risks and their allowance. To continue implementing joint risk management. Decision point 2: Detailed design. Before stages4: -To finalize the design and begin construction. Risk management to continue during construction. Value engineering for detail of finishes etc. Stage4: Readiness for service. Before stage 5: Ongoing risk management; review of value management; feedback on lessons learned. Stage5: Benefits evaluated. 4.5 Integrating Value and Risk Management activities: Both value engineering management must be undertaken at regular basis in the project Value management and value engineering may be used some or all the following: To establish what value means to clients in terms of priorities and business benefits. To identify and agree on business needs. To identify and evaluate options for business needs. To select and agree on best option for meeting business needs. To define and agree on project objectives. To select and agree on best project options, and draw on the experience of independent advisers. To set and weigh up the award and selection criteria for appointing an integrated supply team. To evaluate the bids of the integrated supply teams against the criteria for selection and award evaluation. To refine the design of the project to a maximize value, eradicate waste and withdraw any aspects unrelated to project objectives. A value management advancement helps at all levels of the decision-making process. The concept of value center on associating between satisfying various needs and the resources available to do so. The greater the level of satisfied needs with fewer resources used, the better the value. Even though stakeholders (external and internal customers) may well hold disagreeing views of what really represents value, the purpose of value management is reconciling such different views such that an organization achieves greater progress towards fulfilling its stated goals using the minimum of resources. 4.6 Value and risk management application: Applying both value and risk management is required to maximize the chances of project success. Value management concerns itself with articulating the meaning of value clearly to the clients and then to maximize the delivery of value by devising a link from the project main objectives, through the design solutions, ending with the product. Risk management on the other hand concerns the identification of risks and uncertainties which reduce value but taking management act to reduce or avoid risk. While value is maximized by applying value management, uncertainty and resulting decline of value is minimized through risk management. Phase Focus of Value Part of Study 0 Is this the right project? 1 What are the project objectives? 2 What is the best option? 3 Is this the most effective solution? 4 Did the researcher achieve our expectations? 5 Is productivity optimized? Focus of Risk Part of Study Are the risks acceptable? Are conditions in place to proceed? Are risks allocated appropriately? Are risks under control? What can the researcher learn for the future? Is the business sustainable? Integration of value and risk management through the project life cycle  Figure 9.2 illustrates the integration of value and risk management throughout the project lifecycle as well as the focal point in each technique. Table 9.1 below highlights the integrated value and risk management reviews that clarify the type of value and risk studied, the issues addressed and the output gained from each phase in the project. It can be seen by the use of the arrows potential reiteration which may be necessary if circumstances require strategic changes to the project. Value Study Type Issues address outputs Risk study type VM 0 Need verification Strategic Fit Need for Project Recommendations to sponsor RM 0 Strategic risk study VM 1 Project definition Linking Design Consideration to project objective Value and risk profiles project brief risk allocation management plan RM 1nitial project risk study VM 2 Brief Development Select option Procurement strategy Project organization Brief risk register and management plan RM 2 Project risk review VM3 Value Engineering Optimizing cost, time and quality Inform design development and tender documentation risk register and management plan RM 3 Detailed project risk review VM 4 Design Cost Review Review cost effectiveness optimize components Refine detailed design and construction risk management plan RM 4 Construction risk management VM 5 Project Review Project review Lessons leader for future projects identify future project needs RM 5 Operational risk review Arrows indicate potential reiterations that may be necessary should circumstances require some strategic changes in the project. Table 9.1: Milestones for integrated value and risk management reviews 4.7 Identifying poor value: Two techniques are used to identify poor value functions: the Function Analysis System Technique (FAST) and the cost model, which is generally unpopular as a standalone technique, but it can be integrated into the FAST diagram. Developing the FAST diagram engages the VE team with the study items and imposes rapid exploration. After the FAST diagram has been completed, the Value Engineering team generates ideas for each poor value in the basic function. Brainstorming is used to generate ideas that could be developed into alternative solutions to the original concept. A facilitator encourages creativity and divergent thinking by team members. The team leader defers judgment of ideas until as many ideas as possible are generated. 4.7.1 Evaluation or analysis phase: During the creative phase, critical comments are suspended to encourage a flow of ideas. The VE team then considers the feasibility to all ideas. Therefore, the purpose of this phase is to sort out the brainstormed ideas and select the most viable ones, which will be passed forward to the next development phase. If an idea is economically and technically feasible, it will be presented as an alternative to the project design. If an idea is seen as infeasible, it will not be considered during this phase. 4.7.2 Presentation phase: When an alternative design is developed and remains viable, the VE team incorporates it into a proposal to be presented in a coherent format. The VE proposals are presented to delegates of the projects planner and administration. The review board meets to make one of four decisions for each proposal: Accepting the suggestion as presented. Revise with modifications as noted; or Decline as presented. Defer action until further information is obtained or additional analysis is completed. The board must however explicitly state the rationale for each decision. If there is a deadlock on a certain proposal, it can be deferred for further reviewing in a timely manner and in the form of a report. 4.8 Value Engineering study report: The VE report documents the VE Team activities. A preliminary report typically prepared at the VE analysis session contains all proposals evolved by the Team. The preliminary report typically includes: A list of the VE team. Project description. Scope of VE analysis. The methodology used in the analysis including the teams responsibilities. Summary of whole brainstormed thoughts. Summary of alternatives rejected by the VE group . Summary of VE proposals and a description of original or other designs. 4.9 Final report: The final report is prepared after all proposals are resolved including explanation by the review board. The report describes the nature of the VE proposals that are included on preliminary report. final report includes: A list of the review board members. A summary of the cost savings due to the VE study. Disposition of the proposals. Implementation timetable and related costs. The basis of the assessment boards for their disposition. VE proposals that have been rejected will also be included of the final report including the reason for rejection, which may be due to cost-effectiveness, unusual operation, reliability, maintenance problems, or expected delays. 4.10 Summary: Value management is concerned with the clear articulation of what represents value in terms of project benefits and relating these to the more cost-effective design solution. Risk management centres on identifying risks and the causes of uncertainty and planning mitigating measures to reduce the risks impact on the project. While value management can minimize risk, risk management provides opportunities to maximise value and avoid jeopardising it. Unless value is articulated clearly at the beginning of the project and afterward delivered in the product, there will be no maximization of value. Moreover, unless risks are identified and their consequences managed, value will be distorted. This emphasises the bond between risk and value management as a strategy for increasing the success chances. Value and risk management must not be treated separately or applied in isolation of each other. The two techniques should complement one another and consequently they are integrated at different project stages under the management team to guarantee full understanding of the value of the project and the major risks involved and hence value and risk are studied at the same workshops which brings greater positive outcomes on the project objectives. 5. Conclusions and recommendations: The proceeding parts of this research work have aimed at realizing the research objectives pointed out in chapter 1. This process has involved a detailed review of the fundamentals of risk and value management which served as a background to determine their status in Libya in view of the VM definitions adopted in this research. The research hypothesis was tested by means of interviews with selected highly experienced engineers and academics from public and private sectors and a closed questionnaire distributed to a larger sample of professional engineers and academics within the public and private construction sector. The literature as well as input from the field have both contributed toward the development of a value and risk management integration model which is designed to serve a large number of goals. Most important of these goals as seen by the researcher is presenting the basic techniques of integrating value and risk management in engineering projects in a clear and simplified way to be used by Libyan organizations and contractors/ engineers. Another goal of this model is the dissemination of risk and value management culture within the engineering and construction sectors, as well as removing any misconceptions about the concept of VM and RM where many engineers are familiar with the term, but not acquainted with the details. As the result of this work to fulfill the research objectives, the researcher has arrived at the following conclusion: Value management aspects, benefits, limitations and techniques related to engineering products were pinpointed out in the literature part of dissertation. Risk management aspects, benefits, limitations and techniques related to engineering products were also pinpointed in the literature part of dissertation. The relationship between value management and risk management was clarified in the chapter of risk and value management. The implementation method of value management and risk management aspects (as a component technique) to optimize engineering project success chances throughout the life cycle of the project from concept to salvage was clarified and documented in the literature part of the research. A model was developed to assist the optimization of project success chances. Considerable research work relating to the value management concept and risk management concept is done outside Libya. The initial development of VM in the late 1940s and its later introduction into the construction industry in the early 1960s has introduced VM as a proven approach in improving the value of construction projects through the elimination of unnecessary costs and reducing overall cost without impairing required level of performance. Figures published by a number of construction related organizations have shown significant savings and returns on investment as a result of the evaluation is subjecting value alternatives to risk management process. Preliminary interviews conducted at the start of the field work have indicated that the cost factor is not considered unless cost estimates exceed the projects budget. Paramount design criteria are the owners preferences where the A/E role is to implement these preferences regardless of the risks that may occur. Alternates to original design are only contemplated to reduce the cost estimates to fit the budget. This process translates in to cost cutting rather than improving value. It is also seen that none of those interviewed had considered combining management to optimize results. Causes of lack of appreciation and comprehension of VM within the construction sector in Libya were reported as a result of: 1- Lack of qualified experts in this field. 2- Insufficient exposure to other countries experience. 3- Cost and time required to carry out additional studies to formulate alternatives. 4- Projects are subject to the owners preferences regardless of the cost factor. 5- Habitual and speedy methods of preparing design solutions do not allow for evaluation bench marks to review design proposals from the cost and function point of view. Recommendations: Based on the conclusions reached through this research work, the researcher advances the following recommendations for consideration by entities concerned: The application of project management principles, tools and techniques to implement engineering projects in Libya due to its great importance. The developed model can be used as a guide by project managers to utilize and improve projects success chances. The appropriate documentation of project historical data will increase future project success chances. The integration of value and risk management studies will reduce project time and cost and grant better results as it might be facilitated by one person and carried out by the same team. The introduction of project management training courses in various educational and training institutes.
Tuesday, May 26, 2020
The main assumption of this report is to discredit the false claims that globalization of Capitalism is the only viable path to greater prosperity and development for a society. This report identifies that there is in fact a necessity to explore other economic systems because neoliberal capitalism is currently observed to be greatly impacted by economic and ecological predicaments. The annotations below show numerous possibilities of using alternative economies as an altenative for growth and prosperity. Dacheux and GoujonÃ¢â¬â¢s article address the growing international reality that is at the very heart of the current economic sphere, that globalisation is a utopian dream of a humanist universality. Their forum suggests that a solidarity economy is a humanistic economy and would return trust in democratic deliberation. Solidarity economy offers a combination of initiatives, these include; linking productive activity to social demands rather than profitability; equal participation from both men and women towards the production of goods and services; structuring of local, national and international networks cooperatively based on consensus; collectively working towards a democratic regulation of economic activity. The development and production of solidarity economies are found in many varying forms through the world that reflect differing local conditions. The solidarity economy encourages individual developments by organised participatory community efforts that restrictsShow MoreRelatedOrganisational Theory230255 Words Ã |Ã 922 Pagesneomodernist perspective A new-wave perspective A postmodern perspective A reflective perspective A critical theory and psychoanalytic perspective A managerialist perspective The paradigm debate The practical utility of organization theory Current trends Globalization Institutional and neoinstitutional theory Discourse The aesthetics of organizing One final look at organizational culture Conclusions 432 432 434 434 434 435 436 437 437 438 438 442 446 446 450 452 453 457 459 Index 466 Supporting
Monday, May 18, 2020
Friday, May 15, 2020
Sample details Pages: 11 Words: 3296 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2019/04/08 Category Literature Essay Level High school Tags: Hamlet Essay William Shakespeare Essay Did you like this example? Inside and outside: But I have that within which passeth show, these but the trappings and the suits of woe(Shakespeare I. ii .85). None of his clothes, weeping or sighs can display what he truly feels inside deep distress of losing his beloved father and swallowed jealousy of his uncle Claudiuss claim to the throne and forcibly occupying his beloved mother. Hamlet is constantly described as having an Oedipus complex, This can be defined as, the association of the idea of sexuality with his mother, buried since infancy, can no longer be concealed from his consciousness. The long repressed desire to take his fathers place in his mothers affection is simulated to unconscious activity by the sight of someone usurping this place exactly as he himself had once loved to do. More, this someone was a member of the same family, so that the actual aspiration further resemble the imaginary one in being incestuous. (E Jones,67-72) Under this explanation, Hamlets complicated feelings can be better interpreted. In addition to his oppressive mourning from the death of his father, the fact that he is now perplexed with the precipitate illegal seizing of power and love is adding the new disaster piled up on the other. His jealous of those deprivation comes from his id. By instincts, his id gives him envy along as it urges him to be happy again, so it precipitates him to struggle from desperation. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Hamlets Hesitation" essay for you Create order In addition, when the ghost of his father tells the truth of his cruel persecution, he asks Hamlet to get revenge on Claudius his true murdurer; Hamlet then adds, Yea, from the table of my memory, Ill wipe away all trivial fond records, all saws of books, all forms, all pressures past that youth and observation copied there, and thy commandment all alone shall live Within the book and volume of my brain, unmixed with baser matter. (Shakespeare I. v. 98) In this instance, Hamlet reveals his awareness of the unjust truth, and for the briefest of moment he is stuffed with aggrieved emotion. He is pursuant to the pleasure principle which works as an instinctive desire that satisfies absolutely with no constraint. The only purpose of his id is to successfully achieve revenge on behalf of his father, regardless of the realistic conflicts and actual crisis. Consequently, this intense feeling driven by his id serves as the foundation of his revenge. Secondly, Hamlets superego believes that moral standards and religious norms should also be observed as they buffer against his incentive of revenge. Morally, Hamlet is rather sensible and prudent about the revenge. His superego makes him ponder over the ghosts utterance: The spirit that I have seen may be the devil, and the devil hath power T assume a pleasing shape. Yea, and perhaps out of my weakness and my melancholy, as he is very potent with such spirits, abuses me to damn me. Ill have grounds more relative than this. (Shakespeare, II. ii.560) Granted, Hamlet doubts about the accuracy of the information from the ghost since the suspenseful ghost can be classified as mysterious, unknown, or even vicious. To uncover the veil of the mystery, Hamlet deliberately devised his scheme to test if his uncle demonstrates any guilt by using the adapted play The Murder of Gonzago which shares the similar traits of the prince and his uncle in the character of the poisoner. Hamlets caution is also not separable from his respect to Claudius: Hamlet is also facing the obstacle of ethical kinship. His revenge target is not only his uncle, but also his so-called stepfather. If he insists on revenge, he will be nowhere in ethical terms. (WANGJuan, 34-37) Although Claudius is a newly crowned king, no matter how high he ranks in the public love and esteem, he is the king of Denmark after all, thus Hamlets superego is intended to evaluate the unethical disaster that the revenge can bring. In addition, Hamlets superego also impulses him to consider political factor: Hamlet would not set about the murder on consideration of Claudiuss role as the monarch, which will possibly lead the country into the chaos. In Hamlets political conviction, he attaches much importance to the order of hierarchy in the governing system. (WANGJuan,48-51) Even though Claudius is the most detestable enemy to Hamlet, the murder of his uncle and now King, is substantially against his political beliefs. As Bingshan Liu wrote in History and Anthology of English Literature, If the king is killed rashly, the sudden death of the king may cause panic among the people and endanger the security of the country. (Bingshan Liu,22-24) Hamlet, exemplifies this in that instead solely focusing on his private desires, he is also thinking about the fate of the country. This leads Hamlet to delay based upon trying to find a balance between these two contradicting ideals. Moreover, Hamlets delaying of the revenge can be escribed to religion. But that the dread of something after death, the undiscovered country from whose bourn no traveler retunes, puzzles the will and makes us rather bear those ills we have than fly to others that we know not of ? (Shakespeare III. i. 79-82) The quote argues about Hamlets considering about neither life or death is satisfying since life can be exhausting while death can be even more unknown and evil. Here Hamlet first expresses his vision of life and death and reflects that owns a rather deep spirituality. He believes in traditional doctrine and the immortality of souls. Hamlets religious view gives does not condone suicide, nor the mutilation of other peoples lives. Again, his value orientation coincides with this soliloquy, Did these bones cost no more the breeding but to play at loggers with them? Mine ache to think ont.(Shakespeare.9-10) Now Hamlet is bemoaning about the dead bones which the gravedigger is digging and valuing of human life is fully demonstrated. The highest level of fraternity is loving others as ourselves. Christian belief holds that only God is allowed to punish sinners. If someone commits crimes instead of the God, he is blaspheming against the God and will be punished more severely. (WANGJuan,58-60) If Hamlet killed Claudius, he would violate the code of his religious doctrine, and live in fear justice forever. His religious belief also further delays the revenge later in the play. On seeing Claudiuss confessing and praying due to his guilt and remorse of murdering his brother, Hamlet abandons the best opportunity because he knows if he kills Claudius who is praying, he will send the repentant king to heaven. To take him in the purging of his soul when he is fit and seasoned for his passage? No. (Shakespeare III. iii. 86) However, Hamlet maintains his bitter hatred towards Claudius, which made hi m eager to send Claudius to hell but must wait for another opportunity to see it through. In conclusion, Hamlets superego provokes him to reflect on moral standards and abide by his religious tradition, thus stifling his revenge. Thirdly, Hamlets ego works as the mainstay to adjust between his id and superego, and finally leads to the sad denouement. Before analyzing his ego, reality in the play must be examined. Throughout the tragedy, Hamlets own status and power can be the objective reasons of the inaction. Hamlet, as a humanist, has the weakness of being isolated from the masses while battling. (WANGJuan,79) Indeed, Horatio is the only one who he truly trusts. Although Hamlet and Horatio maintain their friendship, Hamlet hardly pours out his heart to Horatio. Hamlet is isolated and helpless he is vested with no power, army nor counsellor. While his opponent Claudius is the king who holds sovereign rights of the country. Facing the kings ferocity, Claudius accessory minister Poloniuss duplicity, his beloved Ophenliuss repulsion, the swindle fallen down on his mother, and the surveillance from betrayed friends, he cant manage to wholly give consideration to his revenge plan, he is forced to prefer defense r ather than offense. Now, Hamlets ego takes the field to adjust between his id, superego and reality and reconciles their claims, demands and conflicts. When his id, superego and reality struggle and collide fiercely in Hamlets hear, the ego follows the principle of reality, and the purpose is to delay the release of his energy revenge. The inner contradiction cannot be promised, and instead, it causes Hamlets disincentive and delay. Thus conscience does make cowards of us all, and thus the native hue of resolution is sicklied oer with the pale cast of thought, And enterprises of great pith and moment with this regard their currents turn awry, And lose the name of action. (Shakespeare.84-86) Here Hamlet has made a decision based on the principle of reality which delays the implementation of this revenge until he can finally find the right opportunity. Oh fie! Hold, hold, my heart, and you, my sinews, grow not instant old, but bear me stiffly up. Hamlet has to forbear his impulse caused by his bile from knowing the choice because of his haunted ego. Next, Hamlet is wavered by his superego which believes in ethics and religion and thus lets slip the now-or-never chance to revenge. If Hamlet wants to send Claudius to hell, he must seek another scrumptious opportunity, no matter how difficult it is or how long he has to wait. Otherwise, he would forgo any chance to revenge. Only in this way, can his ego consequently be able to reconcile with his id and superego and thus it can conform to his revenge principle despite of whatever fates await. This opportunity finally arrives when Hamlet is stabbed by the poisonous sword. Knowing that it was Claudius scheme, he then finally kills Claudius with a poisonous sword for revenge at the risk of his life. His ego finally succeeded in the negotiation between his id and superego but it is under the condition of knowing that Claudius sets him up first. In this way, his ego needs to balance his id which reaches the extremum and persuades the superego to kill Claudius. Hamlet makes a decision based on the principle of reality: delaying the implementation of this action until he finds the right opportunity. And this is also the opportunity which he has been agonizingly waiting to get involved in the revenge. Only at this moment can these three aspects-superego, ego and id reach an agreement and Hamlets spirit can final ly reach a real balance and extricate itself to liberation. Beyond that, psychoanalysis is also interspersed with five stages of grief to unscramble Hamlets hesitation. Hamlets depression and bargaining are connected together to constitute his first stage. Similar to the depressed emotions brought by his id, they are brought by the loss of his father. Oh, that this too, too sullied flesh would melt, thaw m and resolve itself into a dew, or that that Overland had not fixed his canon giants self-slaughter! O God, God! How weary, stale, fat and unprofitable seem to me all the sues of this world! (Shakespeare. 129-131) Here Hamlet is feeling so weary and desperate that he contemplates suicide. He also compares his life as the unweeded garden that grows to seed. (Shakespeare.135) The death of his father makes him feel like being discarded as he is doomed to a meaningless life. At the same time, he is bargaining with his fate maybe death would be better off for him to let go all his sorrow. His depression coupled with bargaining is the origin of re venge. Additionally. instead of only dwelling on depression, Hamlet also moves to the second stage: denial and isolation which is mainly caused by his unrequited love Ophelia. Ophelia fails to win the argument with her father and has no choice but to break with Hamlet with one stroke of the knife, and this adds more saddened burden onto Hamlets weak shoulders which are already tortured by his orphaning feeling after the loss of his father. If thou dost marry, Ill give thee this plague for thy dowry. Be thou as charts as ice, as pure as snow, thou shalt not escape calumny. Get thee to a nunnery, go. Farewell. Or, if thou wilt needs marry, marry a fool, for wise men know well enough what monsters you make of them. (Shakespeare.136-140) Here maddened Hamlet is still processing his mawkishness of the loss of his devoted Ophelia. After sensing his mothers fickleness and betrayal, he longs for another womans love. However, he is slashed with Ophelias ruthless refuse. Feeling stone-cold, he tries to deny and somehow curses Ophelia for not getting her, building up the walls to isolate himself from the reality that he deems will harm him. His dissatisfy of his mother finally outbreaks here due to his drowning in the misery. His denial and isolation distracts him from focusing on the revenge. However, since he couldnt grin and bear the mentioned grief anymore, his rage outbursts. On one hand, his extravaganza is the reflection of his madness. Anger is often associate with madness as it impedes the objective observation skills and, like insanity, can cloud the mind with anything but the truth.(Kibler-Ross) There is a dialogue which Polonius is confronting with Hamlet with mouthful of ravings. (Polonius) Do you know me, my lord? (Hamlet) Excellent well. You are a fishmonger. Here, Hamlet is calling Polonius a fishmonger. It is better to see his madness as a clever angry sarcasm rather than pure meaningless wild talk. Hamlet may compare Polonius to fishmonger to insult Poloniuss low class and frivolousness. Hamlet sees through his chicanery, and driven by his anger, he refutes him boldly. On the other hand, his anger comes from the censure of his mothers disloyalty. He criticizes: That blurs the grace and blush of modesty, calls virtue hypocrite, takes off the rose from the fair forehead of an innocent love and sets a blister there,makes marriage vows as false as dicers oaths.(Shakespeare. 43-46) Gertrude doesnt want to take it: O, speak to me no more! These words like daggers enter in my ears. No more, sweet Hamlet. (Shakespeare. 18) Their argument makes Hamlet even more unpleasant. Now his accumulated emotions are mingled together and turn into a blast of fury inside which he is not able to restrain anymore. At this time, he senses someone behind the arras and stabs blindly though it. The despicable eavesdrop seems intolerable to Hamlet and his anger peaks and lets out. This killing crime gives him somewhat guts to commit his revenge to the king. His anger incites him to revenge. Finally, Hamlet moves to the final stage of the process: acceptance. After killing the king, he is also hurt from the poisonous sword point. He said, But let it be. Horatio, I am dead. Thou livest. Report me and my cause aright to unsatisfied. (Shakespeare.333-336) He claims he is ready to let it be and also bids Horatio to tell the story without any concealing. Now he feels purely released for eliminating his patricide enemy Claudius and is free from those previous misfortune and anguish, and this might be his happiest moment. Soon afterwards, he leaves the words: But I do prophesy the election lights on Fortinbras. He has my dying voice.(Shakespeare. 354) Here, his zero burden can be further seen. Now he takes account of politics which is his duty as the prince instead of just being exploited by his wretched life or racking his wits about the revenge. Even facing the death of his royal family, he has no pressure to have Fortinbras to take over the country in order to maintain the o rder of Denmark. As Hamlet moves 5 stages of grief which gives him give pause, he also vacillates between if and superego. While Fortinbras, on the the other hand, are more impetuous about the revenge. Fortinabras is quick off the mark without redundant emotions. Now, sir, young OFortinbras, Of unimproved mettle hot and full, hath in the skits of Norway here and there sharked up a list of lawless resolutes (Shakespeare. 94-96) Fortinbras here is plotting the revenge for his father by political conduct to battle with Denmark. His unreasoning mind is fully demonstrated. As Claudius comments: Young Fortinbras, Holding a weak supposal of our worth Or thinking by our late dear brothers death our state to be disjoint and out of frame, Colleagued with the dream of his advantage, He hath not failed to pester us with message Importing the surrender of those lands (Shakespeare. 17-20) Similar to Hamlet, his id comes into force and hastens him to take action. However, Claudius writes to Fortinbras uncle to compromise and the crisis is defused: On Fortinbras, which he, in brief, obeys, Receives rebuke from Norway, and in fine makes vow before his uncle never more to give th assay of arms again st your majesty. Fortinbras plan is eventually ruined. At the end of the play, Hamlets handing the country to Fortinbras can be regarded almost as some kind of repay for Fortinbrass loss and serves for his acceptance stage. Laertes, similarly, is more decisive instead of being just introspective as Hamlet. After knowing the news of Poloniuss death, he enters bargaining stage and it ignites his anger: How came he dead? Ill not be juggled with. To hell, allegiance! Vows, to the b;access devil! Conscience and grace, to the profoundest pit! I dare damnation. To his point I stand that both the worlds i give to negligence. Let come what comes, only Ill be revenged most throughly for my father.(Line104-108) Here his id is fully exhibited. His superego, nevertheless, submits entirely to his compelling id. This also can be shown when he asserts to kill Hamlet in holy and pure church due to his boldness and unbridled willing: To cut his throat ith church. (Shakespeare. 123). Then his depression flocks in when he is told about his sisters death: Let shame say what it will. When these are gone, the woman will be out but that this folly doubts it. (Shakespeare. 185-186) These two are connected to actuate his revenge . His acceptance ultimately comes when he kills Hamlet: He is justly served. It is a poison tempered by myself. Exchange forgiveness with me, noble Hamlet. Mine and my fathers death come not upon thee, nor thine on me. (dies). (Shakespeare. 322-324) Laertes attaches much importance to vengeance, thus the only solution to his revenge dilemma is the death of the killer. His hatred is finally dismissed from his mind. The difference of those three characters can be summarized by H Jenkinss writing: It is of course as unhesitant, unquestioning men of action that Fortinbras and Laertes both contrast with Hamlet. But they complement rather than duplicate one another. (H Jenkins,67-69) In conclusion, Hamlets hesitation can be interpreted from two dimensions: psychoanalysis and 5 sates of grief. Psychoanalysis comes from his neither abandoning moral standards and religious norms, nor releasing his strong desire for revenge and thus causes his delay and hesitation. Only when Claudius exposes his crime to injure Hamlet, can Hamlet finally persuades his moral standards and religious norms, so that his ego can regulate his id to reach an agreement. The other one, 5 stages of grief leads Hamlet from the revenge sprout, distraction and weakness of the revenge, spur of revenge and finally to the acceptance from revenge. Those two dimensions are complementary to one another and together perfectly explain his inaction. However, Fortinbras and Laertes are more decisive about their revenge. Fortinbrass urge comes from his id and also his acceptance is achieved involuntary. Laertes, on the other hand, is more agitated and cruel due to his exclusive id which fully rejects his su perego. Even though his acceptance scarifies his life, but this is accord with his intention.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
A major social problem in America today is its inequality of the distribution of income. Income inequality refers to the gap between the rich and the poor. The United States has the most unequal income distribution in the industrialized world, and it is growing at a faster rate than any other industrialized country (Eitzen Leedham, pg. 37). The main reason as to why income is distributed so unequally is because of the gap between social classes. Each social class has a certain power, and that power is their economic ability to change society. The four major classes are the capitalists, managers, small entrepreneurs and the workers. A persons clothing, housing and educational opportunities usually depend on their class, but thatÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Two important factors that determine a workers income, regardless of their class, are their race and gender. Minority groups as well as women are less likely to receive an income they deserve, regardless of the job. They a re seen as less educated and less capable of doing certain jobs, and they are restricted in advancing and achieving a more suitable income. Only the top capitalists, white males, are receiving the bulk of the nations income revenue and all the benefits that come along with it. They are the richest people of the United States and instead of being taxed like everyone else, they are allowed even more lee-way. There is a solution to this problem that will save small farms and businesses, eliminate the Ãâdeath tax for all Americans and still preserve the integrity of the federal budget: Tax the net worth of the very richest Americans on a regular basis during their lifetime (Eitzen Leedham pg. 40). The already rich continue to earn more and more money with their jobs, and they are not being taxed in proportion to their income. They have gotten away with accumulating more of the nations wealth, while others struggle to make it in life. 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Tuberculosis (TB) is the most common opportunistic infection and cause of death among people living with Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (Olaniran, Hassan-Olajokun, Oyovwevotu Agunlejika, 2011). HIV-positive patients have about a 20-37 folds higher chance of developing Tuberculosis than their HIV-negative counterparts (Kamath, Sharma, Pattanshetty, Hegde Chandrasekaran, 2013) The interaction between these two diseases has synergistic effect leading to excessive burden on the patient, their support network and the society at large. According to Siika,Yiannoutsos, Wools-Kaloustian, Musick, Mwangi, Diero Carter (2013), TB accounts for about 26% of all HIV/AIDS-related deaths with more than 90% of the deaths occurring in developing countries, mostly in Sub-Saharan Africa. HIV-TB co-infected patients have been shown to have worse treatment outcomes (high mortality, Defaulter, Failure, etc.) than when treating TB alone. WHO has worked to provide a national programs and stake holders with guidelines on how to implement and scale up collaborative TB/HIV management activities that can be tailored to each adapting countryÃ¢â¬â¢s unique context. The purpose of the paper is to critically appraise this generic guideline using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) Instrument particularly evaluating the process and outcome measures relat ed to this guideline. Reasons for the Chosen Guideline as a Ã¢â¬Å"Good FitÃ¢â¬ This clinical guideline was developed as aShow MoreRelatedHiv : Hiv And Hiv2192 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagespopulation the rate is 18.5%. Page 2 HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s the virus that causes HIV infection. The human immunodeficiency virus causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. AIDS means Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. AIDS is the most advanced stage of HIV infection. 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InÃ humans, it is the general condition of aÃ persons mind, body and spirit, usually meaning to be free fromÃ illness,Ã injuryÃ orÃ painÃ (as in Ã¢â¬Å"good healthÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"healthyÃ¢â¬ ) whiles a diseaseÃ is anÃ abnormalÃ condition affecting the body of an organism. It is
A study of contrasting images used to reinforce themes in Nathaniel Hawthornes The Scarlet Letter. This paper investigates how Nathaniel Hawthorne, in his book The Scarlet Letter presents the reader with a number of contrasting images to reinforce the themes in the book. The author explores three themes in this paper: the nature of women, the problem of guilt, and the contrast between sin and grace. Hawthorne uses some beautifully crafted images throughout the novel, The Scarlet Letter. Hawthornes use of contrasting images to reinforce the themes is not only inspired, but creates a richness for the reader that could not exist otherwise. The contrasting images of the prison door and the rosebush create a visible contrast between the imprisonment of sin, as preached by and to the Puritans, and the beauty and wildness of the rosebush, representing human nature, beauty, freedom and grace given to all sinners, both in the prison and outside of the prison. We will write a custom essay sample on Grace and Freedom Amidst Sin and Imprisonment or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The rosebush, placed by God, gives hope to those in the prison, while the prison door, placed there by those who are supposedly civilized, the Puritans, only offer condemnation and shame.